After the collapse of the previous Somalia’s government in 1991, Somalia has descended into civil war, conflict based on clan and terrorism eruption, and there wereinternationally and nationallyefforts pursued by Somali intellectuals and international community in which formed successive governments inside and outside the country. unfortunately, all the efforts ended vain.As a result, the country is stillsuffering from insecurity, weak institution, fragile state, poverty and lack of public service.
In this article, I examine how the strong state and institutions contributes to the useful and effectively democracy wise because the strong institutions shape and constrain the behavior of people during election period by avoiding the electoral valiance through legislation and law enforcement because Somali people is tribalism-basedsociety. The purpose of this paper to provide guidance to stakeholders of Somali politicians who are running to win the highest political positions of the country.
What is state?
State is human community that successfully claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within given territory (weber, 1946).
According to the Somalia’s state, still it has no fully state because it depend on external security support such as African union troops(AMISOM) backed by the United States of America and European Union countries and international community providing important support to Somalia over the last thirty years in terms of humanitarian intervention, and peacekeeping mission but the international community is not honestly fully to the state and institutions building of Somalia. Evidently, they are seeking for their vested interest because ofthe geopolitical location of Somalia. Somalia’s politicians tend to embezzlethe national property instead they are reckless the security, public service, institutions building, unification of the people and political and military interference of external actors.
The strong state paves the way for Somali people and the country to provide them order, security, public service and driving the country into free and fair democratic elections, but fragile state such as Somalia weaken by tribalism and democracy costs nothing to them. Because the country is very vulnerable for international and regional interference.
We hear every day especially during the election period this candidate backed by Qatar or Saudi Arabia or United Arab or western countries and so that elected leadersare working for interest of the foreign country backed him/her as a quid pro quo, instead of national interest of Somalia.Because there is no strong state prevents this political interference and protect national interest that is why Somalia needs strong state after democracy.
What is Democracy?
Democracy is political system that holds fair, contested election in the regular bases with universal and adult suffrage (Handelman, n.d). The democracy guarantee freedom of speech, assembly, protection of minority rights, rule of law and civilian command of armed forces. Democracy is system of governance provide which the best mechanism to fight against the poverty and Social inequality (IDEA, 2013)
The democracy takes time for the country to achieve it,because state and institutionsrequires time to be maturity to shape and constrain human interaction, market andempower andeducate the people by eliminating the poverty to accomplish self-determination because the poor people has choice to elects their leaders.
Tribalism and fragile Democracy impede state
In past fifteen years, there has been successive governments based on clan system and still there is no any achievement which has been attained. Again,it is very complex and controversial to talk democracy without addressing the impact of clannism problem on Somalia’s government and political behavior including clientelism, voting patronage and elite politicians and businessmen dominates the power of country. And they are not considering the national interest. For instance,Somalia Federal Parliament has been chosen through hang structure led by traditional leaders that is why members of parliament focuses on their induvial interest by ignoring their constituency and national interest. In additional, hung parliament could not set and prepare national agendas which are debated on plenary of Somalia’s Federal Parliament,regrettably they represent their interests.
- Intellectuals, politicians, Scholars, Youth and women of Somali must focus on state building and institutions before democratic system;
- To provide six or eight years to elected leaders to deliver the country strong state and builds the institutions because democratic decision making is very slow as an illustration telecommunication bill approved by Somali law makers was before parliament at least nine year there are other significant bills are before of the parliament;
- To maintain political stability and prevent external interference by building state which avoid the foreign interference, and
- Strong state and institutions constrain the predator’s rules or businessmen or mercenaries who works for foreign interests.
Ahmed Mohamoud Mohamed (Specialist of Public Administration and government, institutional reform, International relation and diplomacy, foreign policy and political economy and Global governance)
The author has dual masters., MPM in PoliticalEconomy and Global Governance at Korean Development Institute School in South Korea and Master of International Relation and Diplomacy at Kampala University